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See the FAQ aireplay To launch aireplay open another console in the same screen with the help of the little icon on top left. You can also rename it with a right click. We launch aireplay once without worrying about the bssid of the station: Here the example is small but you can easily have 40 lines: Here is a small scheme that will show you the relations between the parameters of aireplay and the capture of airodump:.

In detail aireplay attack Once the association is good, we relaunch aireplay changing some of the parameters. Here it is , Depending on the AP signal strength modify the parameter. Also, following the capture file airodump add in the parameter —r. The ARPS are what will allow us to influence the traffic. To avoid to type it all, since the syntax is basically the same then the parameter -1 press the up arrow key to have what you have previously entered.

Aireplay saves ARPS in a file that he makes every time it is launched. It is underlined in the picture. That file finds itself in the folder where you lauched aireplay. It is that file that you then put in the parameter —r if you got ARPS, the ARPS are obtained by reading the file indicated but also by listening the the network, like airodump does.

Here, we can see that we have an arp. As soon as we get an ARP aireplay starts sending packets. And normaly if everything is going well, the IVS grow.

And it is the case, they are growing: At the sime time, the arps also go up: In detail in the FAQ. You should launch Aircrack once you have k and if you suppose that the key can be e64 bytes you should know, its your network. For that in the parameters of aircrack, you only need to add —n 64 , and aircrack will try to crack the WEP key as if it was a 64 bytes WEP key, even if it is a bytes key.

The Parameter —x stops the bruteforcing of the last 2 bytes, it accelerates the crack normally. Once we have launched aircrack, it shows all the networks that it saw, the crypting, the number of IVs corresponding. You then only need to chose the right number and to launch aircrack. The capture of airodump keeps going while the aircrack increments automatically all the new IVs and uses them to crack the key.

Now the only thing you need to do is let it run and the WEP key should show in red, if the crack works. I believe it is because there was barely any traffic, maybe even none. If your not able to capture ARP let the capture run as long as possible and when a station is connected try an attack per desauthentication it should stimulate the ARP emission.

Now that we have the WEP key, the only thing missing is the networks IP plan Howeever it is usually useless since most of the networks uses dhcp , it means an automatic IP: Your connected to an access point and we give you an IP. To use you first need to put your card on managed mode , for that: You can always test with a command like " ping www.

This starts a x11 VNC server, with all the necessary options to make it run on background forever. Is there a way to use the labels or the textmsgs in order to debug a program? It seems that only part of the debug messages are sent by the controller. It might be because of timing of the commands send to the robot — because if the program is send too fast to the port because such line are executed immediately and if one command is not finished execution when the next command are send — then it will not finish and be overwritten which might result in missing execution of commands.

Therefore it might be nessecary to insert a wait before each command line like is shown in the example at this link. Also the example at this link describe the need for inserting wait in order to be sure the command is fully executed.

When sending raw commands to the ports and without a counterpart program made inside the Polyscope enviorment — then there are no handshake and therefore the timing needs to be controlled by the programmer. A client-server program scenario is more elegant because of a client part running in the Polyscope enviorment and a server part running on a external device then it is possible to build a good handshake.

An example of a client-server scenario is shown at this link https: I have not seen any documentation describing that this can be used for debugging purposes. It might also be considered to look at the real time interface at port I have not used that myself. There are some more informations about the real time interface at this link https: Hi Lars, Thanks a lot for your help.

I now have a robot moving according to a script sent to the server, and I would like to add a button to my client that stops the robot immediately. What is the command that I should send the robot when the button is pressed?

More information on the dash board server at this link. I was reading this forum, where I have figured that I need to be using the port.

Also could you advise me upon how to get the camera paired with the UR10? Other ports can also be used — and actually port is maybe not advisable to use for a camera because it is already used for streaming Robot state and messages data out from the robot. Typically a command is send to the camera in order to get the cordinates back from the camera where it has seen an item to pick.

The command for the request to the camera and the reply from the camera is different from camera vendor to vendor. Hello, Thanks for your response. So is it just you are writing those above scripts and copying it to the pendant and running from there?

I thought I could run them without using the polyscope pendant. My idea is to use my PC to control the UR10 completely. Yes you are right, I checked again it should be Thanks for the pointer, reading through it.

I am not using the above scripts for communicating to a camera, but instead following the method as shown in the link in the earlier answer. It is also possible to receive the data from the camera on a PC and then send command to the robot to make it move accordingly, but that might not be ideal because it would require substantial more programming efforts and I have not seen examples on such solution.

Port is also already used for robot status and messages. A port like or or many other port numbers might be considered if they are not already being used for something else.

I got started and got my robot working through scripting. But facing some real difficulties in integrating camera. I have assigned static IPs for both camera and robot. Just wondering do I need to register the camera through my pendant? I totally want to avoid using the pendant. Another point to bring into attention, is sometimes if the velocity is higher and if i have sleep times between the waypoints the smooth traversing from one point to other is sacrificed and a arm goes like hits the point 1 with a force and then move towards point 2.

We try to read position from Labview. First, the following program that I copied from another webpage was written to robot.

Syntax error on line There is not connection issue. Hi, Thanks for the quick reply. This program is written for client. I am a beginner of UR platforms. So, I add the link that includes the whole script code. Actually, I want to communicate UR5 and Labview.

The main problem is this. It will be useful for me as well as for other users who will have the same problem if you can explain the steps so that the beginners understand. In order to be able to troubleshoot — Can you show the code that is generated in the. I can not find the generated txt file. Is there a specific location? As I understood, robot can not generate a code due to socket error.

If you insert a USB thumb drive into the robot — and then save the polyscope program on the USB drive — and then move the USB drive to a computer and look inside the folder where the polyscope program was saved. The robot save the program as. Converts a pose relative to the flange in the base frame. Gripper urcap preamble start Version 1. Automatic release completed 0x0F " else: In your code it looks like this BeforeStart open: When you typed in the command open: I have a same purpose with Can and met same problem.

First, I try to check client-server connection by SocketTest. SocketTest is listening on Also, robot reply on ping test. I already successfully check client PC -server UR3 connection using port However, reverse connection, client UR3 -server PC , was failed. I need this because i need to react to an event happening in my external program. I assume you need to change the variable that is used in a Polyscope program.

A MODBUS register can be set from external via port — and the same register can be read from within a Polyscope program — and it can also be used the other way arround. An example similar to this can be found at thin link below.

Hello, Is it possible to run scrips or urp files saved in the controller from an external computer connected to the controller? It is possible to load. It seems that this is not the case however? Or am I missing something? Is there a something that you could suggest that would enable my code to hang until a particular command has been fully executed?

I assume you send the commands from an external host to either port or or on the robot — and Yes your observation is correct that an unfinished command will be overwritten by the next command. You might consider to use the realtime Matlab data that are streamed out of port This data contains the position and other data of the robot — and therefore it might be possible to read this data and verify that the robot has arrived at a desired position before sending a new command.

The Matlab data is streamed out from port continuously without having to ask for it and the program on the host needs to be able to swallow the data and look at the data to determine when the robot has arrived. I have not used this data much myself, but I have tested a small program that reads the position data. I tested the position data using a small Python program that reads the datastream every 1 second. Data of a very small value is written as exponent of 10 — and a value of is very small — and is virtual 0.

I will try coding this up to see if I can use it practically. If I were to use port for sending commands, could I use this same connection for receiving the Matlab data? Yes the client-server technique is in a way a more clean approach because you as programmer can control the data flow and design your own protocol of data exchange between the robot and host.

It requires a program on the robot — which the above method doesnt. I tested the code that you shared to get the position of the robot and it worked as expected and according to the obtained values in the polyscope. Am I reading the wrong values or decrypting the data in the wrong way in the script?

I have not tried to use the data for the torques nor the RTDE examples, but maybe some others on the forum have. There is also data streamed out on port and I am working on a UR10 with CB2. I would like to control the robot real time. That is send desired angular positions and read informations at Hz. I found that this can be done with the port but that it does not work on CB2. Can this be done with CB2 on port ? I found many things about how to read robot states on this port but nothing on how to send commands?

Is it possible and if yes where can I find info about that? Hi, I currently have a program where I want to use the force function to close a door on a CNC machine. I tried applying just a simple force to go between two horizontal waypoints from door open to door close. It might be the waypoint positions and the trajectory between them that creates a singularity. And the force function is intended to be used where constant force is to be applied on a surface — for example polishing or deburring.

In these programs you only send one instruction at a time through the connexion then you wait for the instruction to complete. This is painful because you need to know about the time the instruction takes. Is there a way to send multiple instructions or say a whole program at a time? Your observation is correct and thats why this method of programming is a kind of one way communication and each command typical needs to finish before a new command can be send.

It depends on the nature of program that can be send in one bulk. But it is not possible to send all the script commands first — and then start the program in this method. Instead the program commands will be executed as the stream flows.

And it is not ideal to read inputs or use loops with this method. It is possible to develop a. Its important to read the text about importing the script files into the Polyscope program before they will be executed. Lars, your answer is interesting. Will the URC execute the commands one after another like in the polyscope?

That is not likely to work — because if the commands are in one TCP send then there is no delay time in between the commands and they are not likely to be executed. Now does this mean the polyscope has got a way to know when a command is finished in order to start the next command? And for us sending commands over TCP Is there a signal sent over the client interfaces for us to intercept and know when the current command is finished?

Another way to put it is, currently I wait after each command for it to finish. Determining the completion time for each command is a real pain I do it by trial and error and it takes ages , is there another way? I am not aware of such signal.

As his is not the intended way of sending commands instead you might consider to use the methods mentioned earlier. Hi, when i want to send multiple movej or movel commands in one byte array i use the following trick:. I also need to send more then one command to the ur controller. I recognized that the controller is able to handle a while True — loop. In this loop the move-commands running in sequence.

To quit the loop you can call the break statement. I think this method is not the correct way to send multiple commands, but it is the only working solution if found so far. Hups, there is a mistake in my source code sorry, the code was written from my mind and i cannot edit my post.

Of course you are not able to send only the pose. You need to use the move command. I am trying to use the Universal Robot UR10 in order do get the real time joint configuration feedback via socket and using the s.

Do you have any idea how to decode these? I am currently trying to parse the output from a UR5 when using the s. I tried following the format mentioned in the following universal robotics link… http: The majority of the characters appear to be hex, but there are also special characters.

Anything I have tried to decode this message does not provide any values that match the readout from the teaching pendant. Do you have any example or information on how to decode the information being sent back from the ur5 from port ? I have not tried to decode the data. Maybe some special characters data needs to be converted between binary and Ascii. Dear Lars, I have not tried to remove comments completely, but I can confirm that URscript with comments lines starting with works fine with shorter URscript files.

So it is not that UR5 fundamentally cannot digest comments in URscript. I will strip out comments and try. The program is apparently sometimes incompletely received by UR5, in which case it is ignored. This seems to be related to the size of URscript — with a short program a few lines there is almost never a glitch. If I simply add padding to the same program, e.

So it seems like the problem is at the interface between OS and UR5. My PC runs Win 7 64bit. I have tried a different PC with the same OS — this did not eliminate the intermittent problem, in fact the other PC seemed worse because even short URscript programs were frequently not received by UR5. Has anyone else reported something like this? Dear Lars, I have just tried with every single comment stripped out from URscript file. The problem is still there. The problem is intermittent in the sense that when I send the exact same URscript file several times, sometimes it is received properly and executed and sometimes it is not properly received by UR5.

Does the script contain waypoints and move of the robot? Then it might be necessary to wait between sending over the socket until each such commands are finish and also the performing of the command is finish before the next command is send. Dear Lars, Yes I have move commands in the program.

Only then I send the next URscript. Crucially, I can reproduce the same intermittent fault by manually initiating the sending of URscript so I can ensure first that the robot is no longer moving, and wait some seconds just to be on the safe side.

Also sometimes the transmission fails on the very first attempt to send URscript. I am convinced this is not a case of not waiting long enough. I use port , but have tried and also, with the same results. Dear Lars, they all fail, including the one I posted.

The only difference is how often they fail — the more lines in the URscript, the more often I see a failure, even if the extra lines are just comments. The TCP socket connection is terminated from the PC side when the Reset flag is sent in the middle of the transmission. For successful transmissions, the Reset flag comes after the Fin End of Data flag is sent. I do not know what causes the PC to decide to reset the connection.. I have tried your script on my real robot by sending it from a Python application from my PC because I dont have LabView.

And when sending all the script lines in one go except the comments which I filter out then the script executes and performes every time I have run it on the robot. I have not had problems with this — but I have heard from others that they needed to turn it off. Same as Anti virus software I have not had problems with this — but I have heard from others that they needed to turn it off. I am not familiar with LabView, but maybe it insert some wrapping like the Reset flag you mention — or other hidden data that interfere with the TCP scocket connection.

Dear Lars, I have investigated further with Wireshark and found that the apparent cause of the problem is the unsolicited data arriving from UR5 whilst PC is transmitting URscript to it. As you know UR5 broadcasts robot state messages at regular intervals to any TCP client that connects to ports , , or With shorter URscript the chance of collision is less, this is what was happening.

My inelegant workaround is to time the URscript transmission to occur in between UR5 broadcasts.. But it would be nice to turn off these broadcasts, or figure out a way to tell the PC to ignore them and carry on! Do you have any thoughts? Do you have another way than LabView to send your script? I tried your script with Python and it performed every time I tried it — no sign of collisions. And I have also made programs where there are send much more script data and I have not experienced any interference or collision issues — which makes me I think the Ethernet layer TCP ports on a normal PC can handle this traffic.

I even tried to send script commands over the Internet from a PC in Singapore to a real robot in Denmark without any sign of missing data. My application does not even read the Rx buffer — perhaps it is the Rx buffer filling up that causes the OS to abort. In the test of your script with Python code — I do not read the RX buffer — I just send the script only.

My thoughts are still to consider to send the same script with another application instead of LabView — and also maybe with another PC — and then also consider to check the network connectivity — both physically like cabling etc, but also settings such as IP address — Subnet on PC — router — hub — switch if any. I find it better to have a hub or switch in between instead of only one cable connecting the PC and robot directly.

However I did try a direct connection and this did not change anything for me. The direct connection was just with Ethernet cable — no hub. Both cross-over cable and normal cable worked fine I guess one of both NICs are smart enough.

Just to check I reversed this fix but it also made no difference — I still had intermittent aborted connections. It looks like there is a valid reason for PC to reset connection.

During a successful transmission, all TCP frames are acknowledged. It looks like a bug in UR5, like UR5 is unable to receive the data stream properly at the same time as it sends out its own data.

Is there example Python code I can quickly adapt? Hello Lars, I have further information. I noticed that even at the end of a successful transmission that is to say UR5 receives the URscript and executes it , the termination is abnormal — PC sends a RST frame.

Wireshark capture from this shows that the successful transmission is terminated with a mutual exchange of FIN,ACK frames. It would be nice to try the same with Python. Hello Lars, I have reproduced the problem with Python. The first Python program I made and tested — was this program below.

Notice your script commands are in the s. When I tested this I moved the robot manually between each time I started the program and send the scripts over because I wish to see the robot move to the commanded position — in order to observe and be sure that the robot received and executed the commands — and the robot does perform the correct move every time I try.

Notice also that in this test I do not have your script commands in a file. The program still does not use a file to fetch the script commands, but it sends the script commands times to the robot — and I observed and it performs moves every time I try.

Notice there is a delay sleep in between each move in order to be sure the robot is finish the move before a new command for move is send. Then I made a python program similar to your python program below - I added a sequence so I also in this example can observe that the robot receive and executes the moves. And I also made a counter so the scripts files can be loaded several times.

Again I tried to run loops and the robot performs all moves every time I try. I use Python 2. Maybe what can be checked is - depending on the method of sending scripts single lines of several lines in a function - in this case as a function - commands might need to be finish before new move commands are send in order to get commands the robot understands.

When sending as function - the robot needs to receive the entire function in order to understand and the entirety of the combined function commands - whereas when sending as single line commands - for example a single line move command then the robot just need to receive this single line to execute this command, but this command will be interrupted if a new command is send before the robot has finished the execution of previous command. So there is a difference in sending several lines that constitutes a task function where all lines needs to be received - compared to a single line that can be executed as standing alone.

So if several lines are send as a function and if the robot is interrupted maybe by a new batch of sending data or something the sending PC does then the function is not likely to be executed at all - compared to if several single line commands are send and if the robot is interrupted - then it is likely that only the last line will be executed because the robot understand that line in its entirety and can executed it whereas the previous single lines in such a batch has been overwritten.

There will be difference in the behavior because in programming functions and single lines can contain many different design of commands - and there can be timing involved if a command take longer time as other commands like a short distance move compared to a long distance move - or different time delay commands. When observing the robot - the robot perform as expected - also when sending data regardless of the timing of the returned Matlab data.

The robot needs to be finish executing a entire function and commands before a new command should be send otherwise there can be conflict. Hello Lars, the issue is definitely not related to execution of the URscript. In my experience a short URscript fails very rarely so it is possible that it executes times without a glitch. Also I noticed that the frequency of failures depends on the PC I use, perhaps your set-up is more robust than any of the ones I have tried so far.

I also have a real URscript that is even longer than that but is not suitable for repeated testing because it has many move commands and takes a long time to execute. So you can see how a slower PC and a more congested LAN could make failure more likely, and vice versa. A longer URscript is another way to increase the chance of the two transmissions overlapping. I inserted more than lines into each of the 2 files myURSript.

Then instead of loops in the python program — I run loops in the Python program that load and send the 2 myURScript. And the robot moves all times — of cause there is a slight delay in between the moves now — because it takes longer time transmit lines instead on only So in this test irregardless the amount of data to be send and the extend of time doing it — seems to work well with no interruptions.

Then I would be able to see the 1 second between the changes of state of output 1. What happened is that the output does not blink. So I conclude the sleep command is not being executed in this method. Notice also when I need a delay in sending in between the 2 myURScript files — the delay is in the python code and therefore the delay is executed on the sending PC and not on the robot.

As mentioned earlier and also in the main article on the forum — To send script commands to port is kind of one way communication — and once the commands are send and executed the commands needs to be send again if they are to be executed again. Instead a function is intended to be used locally on the UR robot and to be embedded into the Polyscope code.

I created a script file with two functions inside the same script file because I wanted to test the sleep x. The script file looks like this below with a good part of your code inside, but also one more function that can perform an old fashion type of pause that runs as a counter. I created this Polyscope program below. So now the script file is loaded into Polyscope and the functions can be called from the Polyscope program.

There are no Waypoints in the Polyscope program. Also notice the difference in using both Output 1 in Polyscope and Output 2 in Script file. When I run this program - the robot moves to the position in the Script file — and it flashes digital out put 1 and also flashes digital output 2. Which means the two functions inside the Script file are being executed — and the sleep x.

I am guessing that this is properly not the way you wish to use the function, but this is how it is intended to be used. So again by sending to port is a kind of one way communication and all the valid command lines are being executed immediately — and the is why for example sleep x. Hello Lars, Thank you for doing this. This is also why time. Try changing the order of commands — I think you will see that the last one you send always executes, although you cannot check this in the case of sleep.

Anyway I think we have gone round in circles. But I find this unsatisfactory because it is merely a workaround and does not address the actual problem. Since you are not able to reproduce the problem, nor has anyone else reported something similar, it could even be peculiar to my setup. I am afraid the syntax is Python 3 so you will need to adapt it if you want to try it. When I experiment with this I notice that two parameters affect the likelhood of a problem — the length of URscript and the pause between connections sleep statement.

For example on my system the transmission seems reliable with sleep 1 and fails on the second iteration with sleep 0. Yes it will be good to know the result if all comment are removed. I normally filter comments out when sending and only send the real commands through the socket. I just tried on my robot and it shows some very small figures for the j0,j1,j2,j3,j4,j5 for example it shows 7. I send the command movej [0, 0, 0, 0, 0.

Notice the difference in Joint positions and Cartesian position Pose way expressing a position. It is not possible to put the robot into Pose 0,0,0,0,0,0 because that will mean the robot move into itself — whereas it is possible to put the robot into joint position 0,0,0,0,0,0 which is with the arm at a horizontal stretch where the writs 3 is pointing downwards.

Thanks Very much , As your suggestion , It works correctly. I have a question about communication via Ethernet cable with laptop.

I have set on robot configuration an IP adresse ,, I think there must be some script, where UR will wait for some signal, variable or whole script.

For the green light on the Ethernet you might consider to insert a hub between the PC and the robot because I find that a more proper Ethernet configuration. It might also be the type of hardware you are using.

If the communication works as it looks like — then maybe it is ok without the green light. The communication seems to work as expected when you can turn outputs on and off.

The reason for the robot stops is because when running a program made in the Polyscope GUI and when at the same time a command is received on port — then there is a conflict because two different programs are trying to control the robot and therefore the robot stops.

So it is either a Polyscope program — or raw commands send through port — that can control the robot — not both methods like this. But it is possible to send data from an external host to trigger events on the robot for example to set outputs. For example the host can be a PC that via a socket port over the Ethernet send data to the robot — and then use these data inside a Polyscope GUI program — for example to trigger an output to change state or other program events.

This can be done by using a Client—Server method — where an external host e. PC is the Server and the robot is the Client. Thanks for this great article. Some examples at this link. It is also possible to send over a number which you can use on the robot side to choose the waypoint. Something similar is used in this Client-Server example to send a form of position data. The form of position data can be constructed different to suit the application. Hi There, Thanks for the posting.

I would like to ask several questions. Is there any way to do velocity control from server side? I am working on tracking problem, every timestep, I calculate a joint velocity command vector, and I wish to give this command to UR3 in real-time.

Is it possible to make the delay below 30ms? Is it possible to use matlab in server side? Matlab can provide socket. The use of cookies is a standard industry-wide practice. A "Cookie" is a small piece of information that a website assigns and stores on your device while you are viewing a website. Cookies are very helpful and can be used for various different purposes such as allowing you to navigate between pages efficiently and making the interaction between you and our Services quicker and easier.

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Contact us Our Support Team is ready to provide you with timely and efficient professional assistance should you require additional information. Please allow hours to receive a response to all email requests.

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